(PDF READ) [Breadwinners and Citizens: Gender in the Making of the French Social Model] ☆ Laura L. Frader

Of the male breadwinner Frader argues employers tried to preserve French men s Jobs At The Expense at the expense married women s positions and popular sentiment turned against foreign workersFrader is chiefly concerned with ow Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus hegemonic ideas about gender were constructed notow they were challenged Thus she tends to discount opposition to the male breadwinner ideal from feminists female labor leaders and working women themselves She characterizes working women s alternative vision of egalitarian gender relations as utopian p 46 However she acknowledges some significant victories publically employed r dactrices chief clerks won the right to eual pay in the early 1920s and dames employ es female postal workers secured it by the end of the decade. Ing World War I the many women and an increasing number of immigrant men in the labor force competed for employment and pay Family policy was used not only to encourage reproduction but also to regulate wages and the size of the workforce Policies to promote married women s and immigrants departure from the labor force were common

when jobs were 
jobs were as they were during the Depression Frader contends that gender and ethnicity exerted a powerful and unacknowledged influence on French social policy during theDepression era and for decades afterwardAbout the Auth. Have pointed to women
s igh rates 
high rates labor force participation in France as evidence of a relatively weak male breadwinner ideal Frader argues that this evidence of a relatively weak male breadwinner ideal Frader argues that this masks the strong istorical ambivalence surrounding women s work and the persistent efforts to contest and contain women s rights as wage earners p 6French men not only earned Kuli Kontrak higher wages and greater access to skilled positions but also consistently enjoyed better social benefits including family allowances for dependent children Political social and economic citizenship reinforced each other and women who did not gain the right to vote in France until 1944 remained marginal players in all three arenas The Depression of the 1930s affirmed rather than challenged the model. R population deficit and efforts to redefine citizenship in the s and s She demonstrates that gender divisions and the male breadwinner ideal were reaffirmed through the policies and practices of labor management and government The social model that France implemented in the s and s incorporated fundamental social ineualitiesFrader s analysis moves between the everyday lives of ordinary working women and men and the actions of national policymakers political parties and political movements including feminists pro natalists and trade unionists In the years follow. Frader argues that the demographic crisis set off by France sigh casualty rates in the First World War led to pronatalist policies that affirmed men as wage earners while casting women as mothers first and workers second While previous scholars ave pointed to women s igh rates of labor force participation in France as evidence of a relatively weak male breadwinner ideal Frader argues that this perspective masks the strong istorical ambivalence surrounding women a relatively weak male breadwinner ideal Frader argues that this perspective masks the strong istorical ambivalence surrounding women work and the persistent Frader argues that the demographic crisis set off by France s igh casualty rates in the First World War led to pronatalist policies that affirmed men as wage earners policies that affirmed men as wage earners casting women as mothers first and workers second While previous scholars. Laura Levine Frader s synthesis of labor istory and gender Soins naturels pour les cheveux history brings to the fore failures in realizing the French social model of euality for all citizens Challenging previous scholarship she argues that the male breadwinner ideal was stronger in France in the interwar years than scholarsave typically recognized and that it Jojo's Bizarre Adventure, Tome 44 : Mon papa n'est pas mon papa had negative conseuences for women s claims to the full benefits of citizenship She describesow ideas about masculinity femininity family
and work affected 
work affected World War I reconstruction policies designed to address France s postwa.

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Breadwinners and Citizens: Gender in the Making of the French Social Model